force {base}R Documentation

Force evaluation of an Argument

Description

Forces the evaluation of a function argument.

Usage

force(x)

Arguments

x a formal argument.

Details

force forces the evaluation of a formal argument. This can be useful if the argument will be captured in a closure by the lexical scoping rules and will later be altered by an explicit assignment or an implicit assignment in a loop or an apply function.

Note

force does not force the evaluation of promises.

Examples

f <- function(y) function() y
lf <- vector("list", 5)
for (i in seq(along = lf)) lf[[i]] <- f(i)
lf[[1]]()  # returns 5

g <- function(y) { force(y); function() y }
lg <- vector("list", 5)
for (i in seq(along = lg)) lg[[i]] <- g(i)
lg[[1]]()  # returns 1

[Package base version 2.1.0 Index]