longley {datasets} | R Documentation |

## Longley's Economic Regression Data

### Description

A macroeconomic data set which provides a well-known example for a
highly collinear regression.

### Usage

longley

### Format

A data frame with 7 economical variables, observed yearly from 1947 to
1962 (*n=16*).

- GNP.deflator:
- GNP implicit price deflator (
*1954=100*)
- GNP:
- Gross National Product.
- Unemployed:
- number of unemployed.
- Armed.Forces:
- number of people in the armed forces.
- Population:
- ‘noninstitutionalized’ population
*>=* 14 years of age.
- Year:
- the year (time).
- Employed:
- number of people employed.

The regression `lm(Employed ~ .)`

is known to be highly
collinear.

### Source

J. W. Longley (1967)
An appraisal of least-squares programs from the point of view of the
user.
*Journal of the American Statistical Association*, **62**,
819–841.

### References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988)
*The New S Language*.
Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

### Examples

## give the data set in the form it is used in S-PLUS:
longley.x <- data.matrix(longley[, 1:6])
longley.y <- longley[, "Employed"]
pairs(longley, main = "longley data")
summary(fm1 <- lm(Employed ~ ., data = longley))
opar <- par(mfrow = c(2, 2), oma = c(0, 0, 1.1, 0),
mar = c(4.1, 4.1, 2.1, 1.1))
plot(fm1)
par(opar)

[Package

*datasets* version 2.1.0

Index]