gl {base}R Documentation

Generate Factor Levels


Generate factors by specifying the pattern of their levels.


gl(n, k, length = n*k, labels = 1:n, ordered = FALSE)


n an integer giving the number of levels.
k an integer giving the number of replications.
length an integer giving the length of the result.
labels an optional vector of labels for the resulting factor levels.
ordered a logical indicating whether the result should be ordered or not.


The result has levels from 1 to n with each value replicated in groups of length k out to a total length of length.
gl is modelled on the GLIM function of the same name.

See Also

The underlying factor().


## First control, then treatment:
gl(2, 8, label = c("Control", "Treat"))
## 20 alternating 1s and 2s
gl(2, 1, 20)
## alternating pairs of 1s and 2s
gl(2, 2, 20)

[Package base version 2.5.0 Index]