print {base}R Documentation

Print Values


print prints its argument and returns it invisibly (via invisible(x)). It is a generic function which means that new printing methods can be easily added for new classes.


print(x, ...)

## S3 method for class 'factor':
print(x, quote = FALSE, max.levels = NULL,
      width = getOption("width"), ...)

## S3 method for class 'table':
print(x, digits = getOption("digits"), quote = FALSE,
      na.print = "", zero.print = "0", justify = "none", ...)


x an object used to select a method.
... further arguments passed to or from other methods.
quote logical, indicating whether or not strings should be printed with surrounding quotes.
max.levels integer, indicating how many levels should be printed for a factor; if 0, no extra "Levels" line will be printed. The default, NULL, entails choosing max.levels such that the levels print on one line of width width.
width only used when max.levels is NULL, see above.
digits minimal number of significant digits, see print.default.
na.print character string (or NULL) indicating NA values in printed output, see print.default.
zero.print character specifying how zeros (0) should be printed; for sparse tables, using "." can produce stronger results.
justify character indicating if strings should left- or right-justified or left alone, passed to format.


The default method, print.default has its own help page. Use methods("print") to get all the methods for the print generic.

print.factor allows some customization and is used for printing ordered factors as well.

print.table for printing tables allows other customization.

See noquote as an example of a class whose main purpose is a specific print method.


Chambers, J. M. and Hastie, T. J. (1992) Statistical Models in S. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

See Also

The default method print.default, and help for the methods above; further options, noquote.

For more customizable (but cumbersome) printing, see cat, format or also write.


ts(1:20)#-- print is the "Default function" --> print.ts(.) is called
rr <- for(i in 1:3) print(1:i)

## Printing of factors
attenu$station ## 117 levels -> `max.levels' depending on width

## ordered factors: levels  "l1 < l2 < .."

## Printing of sparse (contingency) tables
t1 <- round(abs(rt(200, df=1.8)))
t2 <- round(abs(rt(200, df=1.4)))
table(t1,t2) # simple
print(table(t1,t2), zero.print = ".")# nicer to read

[Package base version 2.5.0 Index]