c {base}R Documentation

Combine Values into a Vector or List


This is a generic function which combines its arguments.

The default method combines its arguments to form a vector. All arguments are coerced to a common type which is the type of the returned value.


c(..., recursive=FALSE)


... objects to be concatenated.
recursive logical. If recursive=TRUE, the function recursively descends through lists combining all their elements into a vector.


Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

See Also

unlist and as.vector to produce attribute-free vectors.


c(1:5, 10.5, "next")

## append to a list:
ll <- list(A = 1, c="C")
## do *not* use
c(ll, d = 1:3) # which is == c(ll, as.list(c(d=1:3))
## but rather
c(ll, d = list(1:3))# c() combining two lists

c(list(A=c(B=1)), recursive=TRUE)

c(options(), recursive=TRUE)
c(list(A=c(B=1,C=2), B=c(E=7)), recursive=TRUE)

[Package base version 2.1.0 Index]