qqnorm {stats}R Documentation

Quantile-Quantile Plots


qqnorm is a generic function the default method of which produces a normal QQ plot of the values in y. qqline adds a line to a normal quantile-quantile plot which passes through the first and third quartiles.

qqplot produces a QQ plot of two datasets.

Graphical parameters may be given as arguments to qqnorm, qqplot and qqline.


qqnorm(y, ...)
## Default S3 method:
qqnorm(y, ylim, main = "Normal Q-Q Plot",
       xlab = "Theoretical Quantiles",
       ylab = "Sample Quantiles", plot.it = TRUE, datax = FALSE,
qqline(y, datax = FALSE, ...)
qqplot(x, y, plot.it = TRUE, xlab = deparse(substitute(x)),
       ylab = deparse(substitute(y)), ...)


x The first sample for qqplot.
y The second or only data sample.
xlab, ylab, main plot labels.
plot.it logical. Should the result be plotted?
datax logical. Should data values be on the x-axis?
ylim, ... graphical parameters.


For qqnorm and qqplot, a list with components

x The x coordinates of the points that were/would be plotted
y The original y vector, i.e., the corresponding y coordinates including NAs.


Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

See Also



y <- rt(200, df = 5)
qqnorm(y); qqline(y, col = 2)
qqplot(y, rt(300, df = 5))

qqnorm(precip, ylab = "Precipitation [in/yr] for 70 US cities")

[Package stats version 2.1.0 Index]