log {base} R Documentation

## Logarithms and Exponentials

### Description

`log` computes natural logarithms, `log10` computes common (i.e., base 10) logarithms, and `log2` computes binary (i.e., base 2) logarithms. The general form `logb(x, base)` computes logarithms with base `base`.

`log1p(x)` computes log(1+x) accurately also for |x| << 1 (and less accurately when x is approximately -1).

`exp` computes the exponential function.

`expm1(x)` computes exp(x) - 1 accurately also for |x| << 1.

### Usage

```log(x, base = exp(1))
logb(x, base = exp(1))
log10(x)
log2(x)

exp(x)
expm1(x)

log1p(x)
```

### Arguments

 `x` a numeric or complex vector. `base` positive number. The base with respect to which logarithms are computed. Defaults to e=`exp(1)`.

### Details

`exp` and `log` are generic functions: methods can be defined for them individually or via the `Math` group generic.

`log10` and `log2` are only special cases, but will be computed more efficiently and accurately where supported by the OS.

### Value

A vector of the same length as `x` containing the transformed values. `log(0)` gives `-Inf` (when available).

### Note

`log` and `logb` are the same thing in R, but `logb` is preferred if `base` is specified, for S-PLUS compatibility.

### References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole. (for `log`, `\log10` and `exp`.)

Chambers, J. M. (1998) Programming with Data. A Guide to the S Language. Springer. (for `logb`.)

`Trig`, `sqrt`, `Arithmetic`.
```log(exp(3))