Syntax {base}R Documentation

Operator Syntax and Precedence


Outlines R syntax and gives the precedence of operators


The following unary and binary operators are defined. They are listed in precedence groups, from highest to lowest.
[ [[ indexing
:: ::: access variables in a name space
$ @ component / slot extraction
^ exponentiation (right to left)
- + unary minus and plus
: sequence operator
%any% special operators
* / multiply, divide
+ - (binary) add, subtract
< > <= >= == != ordering and comparison
! negation
& && and
| || or
~ as in formulae
-> ->> rightwards assignment
= assignment (right to left)
<- <<- assignment (right to left)
? help (unary and binary)

Within an expression operators of equal precedence are evaluated from left to right except where indicated.

The links in the See Also section covers most other aspects of the basic syntax.


There are substantial precedence differences between R and S. In particular, in S ? has the same precedence as (binary) + - and & && | || have equal precedence.


Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

See Also

Arithmetic, Comparison, Control, Extract, Logic, NumericConstants, Paren, Quotes.

The R Language Definition manual.

[Package base version 2.5.0 Index]