outer {base} | R Documentation |

## Outer Product of Arrays

### Description

The outer product of the arrays `X`

and `Y`

is the array
`A`

with dimension `c(dim(X), dim(Y))`

where element
```
A[c(arrayindex.x, arrayindex.y)]
= FUN(X[arrayindex.x], Y[arrayindex.y], ...)
```

.

### Usage

outer(X, Y, FUN="*", ...)
X %o% Y

### Arguments

`X, Y` |
First and second arguments for function `FUN` .
Typically a vector or array. |

`FUN` |
a function to use on the outer products, found *via*
`match.fun` (except for the special case `"*"` ). |

`...` |
optional arguments to be passed to `FUN` . |

### Details

`FUN`

must be a function (or the name of it) which expects at
least two arguments and which operates elementwise.

`X`

and `Y`

must be suitable arguments for `FUN`

. Each
will be extended by `rep`

to length the products of the
lengths of `X`

and `Y`

before `FUN`

is called.

Where they exist, the [dim]names of `X`

and `Y`

will be
copied to the answer, and a dimension assigned which is the
concatenation of the dimensions of `X`

and `Y`

(or lengths
if dimensions do not exist).

`FUN = "*"`

is handled internally as a special case, *via*
`as.vector(X) %*% t(as.vector(Y))`

, and is intended only for
numeric vectors and arrays.

`%o%`

is binary operator providing a wrapper for
`outer(x, y, "*")`

.

### Author(s)

Jonathan Rougier

### References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988)
*The New S Language*.
Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

### See Also

`%*%`

for usual (*inner*) matrix vector
multiplication;
`kronecker`

which is based on `outer`

.

### Examples

x <- 1:9; names(x) <- x
# Multiplication & Power Tables
x %o% x
y <- 2:8; names(y) <- paste(y,":",sep="")
outer(y, x, "^")
outer(month.abb, 1999:2003, FUN = "paste")
## three way multiplication table:
x %o% x %o% y[1:3]

[Package

*base* version 2.5.0

Index]