x11 {grDevices}R Documentation

X Window System Graphics


X11 starts a graphics device driver for the X Window System (version 11). This can only be done on machines that run X. x11 is recognized as a synonym for X11.


X11(display = "", width = 7, height = 7, pointsize = 12,
    gamma = getOption("gamma"), colortype = getOption("X11colortype"),
    maxcubesize = 256, bg = "transparent", canvas = "white",
    fonts = getOption("X11fonts"), xpos = NA, ypos = NA)


display the display on which the graphics window will appear. The default is to use the value in the user's environment variable DISPLAY.
width, height the width and height of the plotting window, in inches. See also Resources.
pointsize the default pointsize to be used.
gamma the gamma correction factor. This value is used to ensure that the colors perceived are linearly related to RGB values (see hsv). By default this is taken from options("gamma"), or is 1 (no correction) if that is unset (which is the usual case).
colortype the kind of color model to be used. The possibilities are "mono", "gray", "pseudo", "pseudo.cube" and "true". Ignored if an X11 device is already open.
maxcubesize can be used to limit the size of color cube allocated for pseudocolor devices.
bg color. The default background color.
canvas color. The color of the canvas, which is visible only when the background color is transparent.
fonts X11 font description strings into which weight, slant and size will be substituted. There are two, the first for fonts 1 to 4 and the second for font 5, the symbol font. See section Fonts.
xpos, ypos initial position of the top left corner of the window, in pixels. Negative values are from the opposite corner, e.g. xpos=-100 says the top right corner should be 100 pixels from the right edge of the screen. If NA, successive devices are cascaded in 20 pixel steps from the top left. See also Resources.


By default, an X11 device will use the best color rendering strategy that it can. The choice can be overridden with the colortype parameter. A value of "mono" results in black and white graphics, "gray" in grayscale and "true" in truecolor graphics (if this is possible). The values "pseudo" and "pseudo.cube" provide color strategies for pseudocolor displays. The first strategy provides on-demand color allocation which produces exact colors until the color resources of the display are exhausted. The second causes a standard color cube to be set up, and requested colors are approximated by the closest value in the cube. The default strategy for pseudocolor displays is "pseudo".

Note: All X11 devices share a colortype which is set by the first device to be opened. To change the colortype you need to close all open X11 devices then open one with the desired colortype.

With colortype equal to "pseudo.cube" or "gray" successively smaller palettes are tried until one is completely allocated. If allocation of the smallest attempt fails the device will revert to "mono".

Line widths as controlled by par(lwd=) are in multiples of the pixel size, and multiples < 1 are silently converted to 1.

pch="." with cex = 1 corresponds to a rectangle of sides the larger of one pixel and 0.01 inch.

The initial size and position are only hints, and may not be acted on by the window manager.


An initial/default font family for the device can be specified via the fonts argument, but if a device-independent R graphics font family is specified (e.g., via par(family=) in the graphics package), the X11 device makes use of the X11 font database (see X11Fonts) to convert the R graphics font family to an X11-specific font family description.

X11 chooses fonts by matching to a pattern, and it is quite possible that it will choose a font in the wrong encoding or which does not contain glyphs for the your language (particularly common in iso10646-1 fonts.

The fonts argument is a two-element character vector, and the first element will be crucial in successfully using non-Western-European fonts. Settings that have proved useful include

"-*-mincho-%s-%s-*-*-%d-*-*-*-*-*-*-*" for CJK languages and "-cronyx-helvetica-%s-%s-*-*-%d-*-*-*-*-*-*-*" for Russian.

For UTF-8 locales, the XLC_LOCALE databases provide mappings between character encodings, and you may need to add an entry for your locale (e.g. Fedora Core 3 lacks one for ru_RU.utf8).


The standard X11 resource geometry can be use to specify the window position and/or size, but will be overridden by values specified as arguments. The class looked for is R_x11. Note that the resource specifies the width and height in pixels and not in inches.

See Also


[Package grDevices version 2.5.0 Index]