C {stats}R Documentation

Sets Contrasts for a Factor


Sets the "contrasts" attribute for the factor.


C(object, contr, how.many, ...)


object a factor or ordered factor
contr which contrasts to use. Can be a matrix with one row for each level of the factor or a suitable function like contr.poly or a character string giving the name of the function
how.many the number of contrasts to set, by default one less than nlevels(object).
... additional arguments for the function contr.


For compatibility with S, contr can be treatment, helmert, sum or poly (without quotes) as shorthand for contr.treatment and so on.


The factor object with the "contrasts" attribute set.


Chambers, J. M. and Hastie, T. J. (1992) Statistical models. Chapter 2 of Statistical Models in S eds J. M. Chambers and T. J. Hastie, Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

See Also

contrasts, contr.sum, etc.


## reset contrasts to defaults
options(contrasts=c("contr.treatment", "contr.poly"))
tens <- with(warpbreaks, C(tension, poly, 1))
## tension SHOULD be an ordered factor, but as it is not we can use
aov(breaks ~ wool + tens + tension, data=warpbreaks)

## show the use of ...  The default contrast is contr.treatment here
summary(lm(breaks ~ wool + C(tension, base=2), data=warpbreaks))

# following on from help(esoph)
model3 <- glm(cbind(ncases, ncontrols) ~ agegp + C(tobgp, , 1) +
     C(alcgp, , 1), data = esoph, family = binomial())

[Package stats version 2.5.0 Index]